UL 248-15 standard pdf

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UL 213 standard

© Canadian Standards Association

13.8.7 Brakes

13.8.7.1 General

13.8.7.1.1 General

Movable bridge spans shall have at least one set of brakes.

Bridges that are manually operated only may be provided with only one set of brakes. This set shall consist of two units. One brake unit shall be considered equivalent to a motor brake and the other brake unit shall be proportioned to assist in dynamic braking for emergency stopping or to assist in static braking or “parking” the span in any position and shall be considered equivalent to a machinery brake.

Each drive unit on a power-operated movable bridge shall have at least two sets of brakes. One set shall be a motor brake in accordance with Clause 13.8.7.2 and the other shall be either a motor brake in accordance with Clause 13.8.7.2 or a machinery brake in accordance with Clause 13.8.7.3.

For the purposes of this Clause, a set of brakes may consist of one or more individual braking units. Hydraulically operated bridges shall be provided with equivalent means for motion control.

13.8.7.1.2 Operating

The motor brakes for controlling the motion of the moving span shall have sufficient capacity to stop the span in 10 s under the loading conditions specified in Clause 13.8.5.2 for bridge operation in the normal time for opening or closing.

13.8.7.1.3 Holding

The braking systems shall also be capable of holding the span against movement in any open position under the loads specified in Clause 13.8.5.4.

13.8.7.1.4 Gradual application

Brakes, whether electrically, mechanically, hydraulically, or manually operated, shall be designed so that the retarding torque is applied gradually and is consistent with the deceleration time assumed for design in order to minimize shock loading.

13.8.7.1.5 Sequencing

When two sets of brakes are used, they shall be sequenced so that under normal operation they cannot be applied simultaneously.

13.8.7.1.6 Frictional assistance

In calculating the necessary brake capacity, frictional resistances that assist the brake may be included. Coefficients of friction that are 40% of those related to motion may be used for this condition.

13.8.7.2 Motor brakes

Motor brakes shall be provided for all movable bridges.

Where only one set of brakes is fitted, the motor brakes shall be capable of controlling the span for both the operating and the holding conditions.

Motor brakes shall be operated either electrically or mechanically. On electric motor installations, they should be electrically operated and mounted on the motor shaft. On internal combustion engine and manually operated installations, they shall be mounted as near to the high-speed shaft as practicable.

13.8.7.3 Machinery brakes

When machinery brakes are supplied, the motor brakes shall have sufficient capacity to stop the span in 10 s and the machinery brakes shall have a capacity, as measured at the shafts of the motor brakes, equal to 50% of that of the motor brakes. The combined capacity of the motor and machinery brakes shall be sufficient to hold the span under the conditions specified in Clause 13.8.5.

November 2006

Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code

597

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UL 924 standard

75 mm (3 po)

75 mm (3 PO) min.

I \ I \

Plafond t u 21 mm -fLLff///////////

(7/8 PO) min. Écran 9 I

thermique

A Écran *

thermique 500 mm (20 po) +

min.

->

* –

Mur
\
\
\ incombustible \
\

\ \ Cale d’espacement

Poêle il combustibles

ti if

-’A

25 mm (1 po) min. et 75 mm (3 po) max.

4-

21 mm (718 po) min.

(à au moins 200 mm (8 PO)

de l’axe

Poêle à combustibles

\

I \ Dégagement

\

4 V b

\ réduit

b) Plan

Note. Vis permises aux extrémités de l’écran seulement.

Figure 6
Pose des écrans thermiques sur les murs et le plafond (Faisant partie de l’article 7.2.4)

Décembre 1991

43

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UL 1090 standard

A23.1-09

4.4.6.7.2

If, after carrying out the appropriate requirements of Clause 4.4.6.7.1, the elements are found not to comply with the requirements of the standard, the owner shall require strengthening or replacement of those portions deemed to be non-compliant.

4.4.7 Density

When tests are required on low-density and semi-low-density concrete, the air-dry density shall be measured in accordance with CSA A23.2 11C. For normal-density and high-density concrete, the density of plastic concrete shall be measured in accordance with CSA A23.2-6C.

4.4.8 Flexural strength

When tests are required, the flexural strength of concrete shall be measured in accordance with CSA A23.2-8C.

4.4.9 Splitting tensile strength

When tests are required, the splitting tensile strength of concrete shall be measured in accordance with CSA A23.2-13C with 150 mm × 300 mm cylinders.

4.4.10 Salt scaling

The owner shall specify the method to be used for evaluation of salt scaling resistance of concrete and the criteria to be met.

Note: The following tests may be used to evaluate the resistance of concrete to salt-induced scaling: (a) ASTM C 672/C 672M. A 3% sodium chloride solution by mass should be used instead of the calcium chloride solution specified;

(b) BNQ NQ 2621-900, Article 7.6, Appendix B; and (c) LS-412, “Method of Test for Scaling Resistance of Concrete Surfaces Exposed to Deicing Chemicals”, Ministry of Transportation (MTO) Laboratory Testing Manual.

4.4.11 Inspection and testing of fibre reinforcing

The type and quantity of fibre reinforcing (FR) shall be checked and recorded. The quantity measured shall be recorded to the nearest 1 kg/m3 for steel fibres and to the nearest 0.1 kg/m3 for synthetic fibres to ensure that the necessary total mass of FR is added to the concrete.

Note: The owner may determine the mass of fibre in a sample of concrete through washing out and weighing the fibres in a specified volume of concrete. A determination method for fibre content is provided in CSA A23.2-16C.

4.4.12 Chloride ion penetrability

When chloride ion penetrability is required as described in Clause 4.1.1.10, the test shall be performed in accordance with ASTM C 1202. In such cases, chloride ion penetrability, as determined on concrete cylinders moulded in accordance with CSA A23.2-3C, shall be determined prior to the start of construction on cylinders of concrete made with the same materials, mix proportions, and mixing procedures as intended for the project. If the owner deems it necessary to check the chloride ion penetrability during construction, testing shall be carried out on cylinders made from concrete as delivered to the job site or on cores drilled from hardened concrete in the structure. In the latter case, this requirement shall be clearly stated in the project specifications.

Note: The chloride ion penetrability test should not be measured on concrete containing corrosion-inhibiting admixtures, since the standard acceptance limits are not applicable.

March 2011

(Replaces p. 52, July 2009)

© Canadian Standards Association

52

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UL 6A standard

A23.2-09

4 Additional procedure for large-size aggregate concrete

4.1 General

When the concrete contains aggregate larger than that appropriate for the size of the moulds or equipment to be used, wet sieve the sample prior to testing. For all density tests, use an unsieved sample. Note: The effect of wet-sieving on the test results should be considered. For example, wet-sieving concrete causes the loss of a small amount of air due to additional handling. The air content of the wet-sieved fraction of concrete is greater than that of the total concrete because the large-size aggregate, which is removed, does not contain air. The apparent strength of wet-sieved concrete in smaller specimens is usually greater than that of the total concrete in larger appropriate size specimens. The effect of these differences might need to be considered or determined by supplementary testing for quality control or test result evaluation purposes.

4.2 Apparatus

4.2.1 Sieves

Sieves, as designated, shall conform to CAN/CGSB-8.2.

4.2.2 Wet-sieving equipment

Equipment for wet-sieving concrete shall be a sieve, as specified in Clause 4.2.1, of suitable size and conveniently arranged and supported so that it can be shaken rapidly either by hand or by mechanical means.

4.3 Procedure

After sampling, pass the concrete over the designated sieve and remove and discard the aggregate retained. Do this before remixing. Shake or vibrate the sieve by hand or mechanical means until no undersize aggregate remains on the sieve. If any mortar adheres to the aggregate retained on the sieve, do not wipe the mortar from it before it is discarded. Place only enough concrete on the sieve at any one time that after sieving, the thickness of the layer of retained aggregate is not more than the maximum-size particle. Ensure that the concrete that passes the sieve falls into a batch pan of suitable size that has been dampened before use or onto a clean, moist, nonabsorbent surface. Scrape any mortar adhering to the sides of the wet-sieving equipment into the batch. After removing the larger aggregate particles by wet-sieving, remix the batch with a shovel only as long as required to ensure uniformity.

5 Reporting

5.1 Required information

The report shall include the following information:

(a) sample identification;

(b) source of the sample (i.e., bill no., batch no., plant identification);

(c) date and time of sampling;

(d) location of the sampling operation (i.e., identification of the project site);

(e) location of the concrete in the structure under construction represented by the sample;

(f) identification of the laboratory performing the sampling (i.e., name and address); and

(g) name and signature of the person responsible for the review of the test report.

5.2 Optional information

The report may include the name of the laboratory technician performing the sampling.

434

� Canadian Standards Association

March 2011

(Replaces p. 434, July 2009)

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UL 60730-2-6 standard

© Canadian Standards Association

Supplement No. 1 to CAN/CSA-S6-06, Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code

[f044]

10.24.4.3.2

Plate edges

Sheared edges of plates more than 16 mm thick and carrying calculated tension shall be planed, milled, or ground a minimum of 3 mm.

Oxygen cutting of structural steel shall be done by machine, except that hand-guided cutting shall be allowed for copes, blocks, and similar cuts where machine cutting is impracticable. Re-entrant corners shall be free from notches and shall have a fillet of the largest practical radius, but not less than 25 mm.

The quality and repair of the cut edges shall comply with Clause 5 of CSA W59. All cut edges shall have a surface roughness not greater than 1000, as specified by CSA B95.

Corners of oxygen-cut girder flange tips shall be chamfered 2.0 mm by grinding.

10.24.4.3.3 Camber in web plates

Webs shall be cut to the prescribed camber, with allowance for shrinkage due to cutting and subsequent welding. The requirements of Clauses 10.7.4.2 and 10.7.4.3 shall also apply.

10.24.4.3.4 Bent plates

The following requirements shall apply to bent plates: (a) Load-carrying, rolled steel plates to be bent shall (i) be cut from the stock plates so that the bend line is at right angles to the direction of rolling, except as otherwise Approved for orthotropic decks; and

(ii) have their corners lightly chamfered by grinding in the region of the bend before bending.

(b) Cold bending shall be carried out so that no cracking or tearing of the plate occurs. Minimum bend radii, measured to the concave face of the metal, shall be as shown in Table 10.17.

(c) Hot bending at a plate temperature not greater than 600 °C shall be used to form radii less than those specified for cold bending. Accelerated cooling using compressed air or water shall be used for a hot bent component only when its temperature is below 300 °C.

Table 10.17
Minimum bend radii for bent plates (See Clause 10.24.4.3.4.)

10.24.4.4 Straightening material

All steel shall be flat and straight before being worked. Steel with sharp kinks or bends may be rejected. Attempts to straighten sharp kinks or bends shall require Approval.

Rolled plates, sections, and built-up members may be straightened using mechanical means or by the application of a controlled heating procedure in accordance with Clause 5.10.5 of CSA W59. After straightening of a bend or buckle, the surface of the steel shall be examined for evidence of fracture or other damage and corrective action taken if necessary.

t, mm

Minimum radius

12 or less 2t

Over 12 to 25 2.5t

Over 25 to 38 3t

Over 38 to 65 3.5t

Over 65 to 100 4t

May 2010

(Replaces p. 521, November 2006)

521

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UL 2390 standard

S6S2-11

© Canadian Standards Association

Example 1

Example 2

CJP

CJP

or

Example 3

Example 4

CJP

or

Gusset

Example 5

Example 6

Figure 17.4
Detail categories for load-induced fatigue (See Table 17.8.)

(Continued)

794

October 2011

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UL 1446 standard

© Canadian Standards Association

Supplement No. 2 to CAN/CSA-S6-06, Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code

Compression zone

frfy

Be

Ar

0.85fcfc’

ds’

Cr

tc

a

Cc

ec er

yt

yb

As

Ts

d

Centre of gravity of steel section

fsFy

(a) Plastic neutral axis in the concrete slab

frfy

Be

Ar

0.85fcfc’

Cr

tc

yt’

yb’

tt tb

Cc

Plastic neutral axis of composite section

ytc

ybc

Cs

fsFy es

ds’

ec er

d

As

h

Ts

fsFy

(b) Plastic neutral axis in the steel section

[f044]

[f044] 10.11.5.2.3 Plastic neutral axis in concrete
When C1 is greater than C2 , the plastic neutral axis is in the concrete slab as shown in Figure 10.1(a), and the depth of the compressive stress block, a, shall be calculated as

a C A f B f

r r y c e c

= -

2

0 85

f

f .

The factored moment resistance, Mr , of the section shall be calculated as

Mr = Cc ec + Cr er

where
Cc = 0.85[f066] c Be a fc ‘

October 2011

Figure 10.1
Class 1 and 2 sections in positive moment regions (See Clauses 10.11.5.2.1, 10.11.5.2.3, and 10.11.5.2.4.)

(Replaces p. 465, May 2010)

465

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UL 1004-5 standard

CAN/CSA-S6-06

The machinery brakes shall normally be held in release during the entire operating cycle but shall be capable of being applied in an emergency at the discretion of the operator. They shall be designed to be held in release indefinitely.

The machinery brakes shall be mounted as near as practicable to the operating ropes or main pinion.

13.8.7.4 Brakes for emergency power

When emergency power by means of an internal combustion engine is used, a manually operated brake that is capable of being applied by the operator from the point at which the engine is being operated shall be provided. Brakes shall not be required for emergency manual operation.

13.8.7.5 Brakes for locks and wedge motors

Span lock and wedge motors shall each have one electrically operated brake.

13.8.8 Frictional resistance

13.8.8.1 Machinery

The frictional resistances of the moving span and its machinery parts shall be determined using the coefficients specified in Tables 13.7 and 13.8.

Table 13.7

Coefficients of friction (See Clause 13.8.8.1.)

Coefficient of friction

For starting For moving

For trunnion friction, plain bearings

Less than one complete revolution More than one complete revolution For trunnion friction, anti-friction bearings For friction on centre discs
For collar friction at ends of conical rollers For rolling friction

Bridges rolling on segmental girders Rollers with flanges
Rollers without flanges
r measured in millimetres
r measured in inches
For sliding surfaces, intermittently lubricated (e.g., span guides of vertical lift bridges)

*For manually operated bridges, this coefficient shall be increased by 25%. For proprietary bearing materials, the coefficients of friction shall be as specified by the manufacturer. Note: For wire rope bending through a 180� wrap, the loss per sheave is the direct tension multiplied by 0.3(dr/D) for starting and moving.

Legend:

r = radius of roller, mm (in) dr = rope diameter, mm (in)

D = pitch diameter of sheaf or drum, mm (in)

� Canadian Standards Association

0.18*

0.13*

0.004

0.15

0.15

0.009

0.009

0.04/

0.08/

0.12

0.12*

0.09*

0.003

0.10

0.10

0.006

0.006

0.04/

0.08/

0.08

r

r r

r

598

November 2006

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